In this study, the authors solve the problem of uniform global asymptotic stabilisation and global exponential tracking for an underactuated ship with only two propellers. A unified backstepping design methodology is proposed to tackle both the stabilisation and tracking problems. The obvious advantage of this framework is that the controller design procedure is systematic and analytically simple. The study also addresses the tracking problem with constant bias of environmental disturbances. Simulation results are provided to validate our theoretical results.
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