Nanotechnology has a wide range of agricultural applications, with emphasize on the development of novel nano-agrochemicals such as, nano-fertilizer and nano-pesticides. It has a significant impact on sustainable agriculture by increasing agricultural productivity, while reducing the use of inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Nano-coating delivery methods for agrochemicals have improved agrochemical effectiveness, safety, and consistency. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) has recently been recognized as an effective tool, contrary to chemically derived NPs, for plant abiotic and biotic stress control, and crop improvement. In this regard, fungi have tremendous scope and importance for producing biogenic NPs of various sizes, shapes, and characteristics. Fungi are potential candidates for synthesis of biogenic NPs due to their enhanced bioavailability, biological activity, and higher metal tolerance. However, their biomimetic properties and high capacity for dispersion in soil, water environments, and foods may have negative environmental consequences. Furthermore, their bioaccumulation raises significant concerns about the novel properties of nanomaterials potentially causing adverse biological effects, including toxicity. This review provides a concise outline of the growing role of fungal-mediated metal NPs synthesis, its potential applications in crop field, and associated issues of nano-pollution in soil and its future implications.
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