Management of chronic diseases is complex and requires a long-term commitment to therapeutic medications. However, medication adherence is suboptimal. There is limited understanding of factors predicting medication adherence in chronic diseases in Oman. This study aimed to examine predictors of medication adherence (i.e. patient clinical and demographic data, patient-physician relationship, health literacy, social support) among Omani patients with chronic diseases. This study used a cross-sectional correlation design. Data were collected from 800 participants using convenience sampling between December 2019 and April 2020. Arabic versions of the Brief Health Literacy Screening tool, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire, and Adherence in Chronic Disease Scale were used to measure study variables. Descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlations, and multivariate linear regression were used for analysis. The study found that factors such as the patient-physician relationship, social support, disease duration, employment status, and medication frequency significantly predicted medication adherence. Medication adherence was higher among those who were unemployed, had a better patient-physician relationship, and greater social support. However, medication adherence was lower with longer disease duration and higher daily medication frequency. Additionally, medication adherence was positively associated with perceived social support and the patient-physician relationship, but not with health literacy. In conclusion, the study reveals that patient characteristics, social support, and patient-physician relationships are key factors in predicting medication adherence in patients with chronic diseases in the Middle East. It emphasizes the importance of improving these aspects, considering factors like employment status, disease duration, and medication frequency, and enhancing healthcare provider-patient relationships and social support systems to boost adherence.
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