Mutations in the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) gene encoding the erythroid and kidney anion (chloride-bicarbonate) exchanger 1 may result in familial distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) in association with membrane defect hemolytic anemia. Seven children presenting with hyperchloremic normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, failure to thrive, and compensated hemolytic anemia were studied. Analysis of red cell AE1/Band 3 surface expression by Eosin 5′-maleimide (E5M) was performed in patients and their family members using flow cytometry. Genetic studies showed that all patients carried a common SLC4A1 mutation, c.2573C>A; p.Ala858Asp in exon 19, found as homozygous (A858D/A858D) mutation in the patients and heterozygous (A858D/N) in the parents. Analysis by flowcytometry revealed a single uniform fluorescence peak, with the mean channel fluorescence (MCF) markedly reduced in cases with homozygous mutation, along with a left shift of fluorescence signal but was only mildly reduced in the heterozygous state. Red cell morphology showed striking acanthocytosis in the homozygous state [patients] and only a mild acanthocytosis in heterozygous state [parents]. In conclusion, this is the first description of a series of homozygous cases with the A858D mutation. The E5M flowcytometry test is specific for reduction in the Band 3 membrane protein and was useful in conjunction with a careful morphological examination of peripheral blood smears in our patient cohort.
ASJC Scopus subject areas