Objectives: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical presentation of Omani children with type 1 diabetes mellitus at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children with type 1 diabetes mellitus attending the Pediatric Endocrine Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman from June 2006 to May 2013. Results: One hundred and forty-four patients were included in the study. The mean±SD of age at diagnosis was 6.7 ± 3.7 years. The median duration of symptoms was 10 days (IQR; 5-14). The most commonly reported presenting symptoms were polyuria (94%), polydipsia (82%), and weight loss (59%). Diabetic ketoacidosis at initial presentation was diagnosed in 31% of the patients. Different insulin regimens were prescribed: multiple daily injections in 109 (76%) patients, twice daily insulin regimen in 23 (16%) patients, and insulin pump therapy in 12 (8%) patients. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus was present in 31 (22%) patients. There were no significant differences in presenting complaints (polyuria, p=0.182; polydipsia, p=0.848), duration of symptoms (p=0.331), reported weight loss (p=0.753), or diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation (p=0.608) between patients with and without family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Polyuria, polydipsia and weight loss are the most common presenting symptoms. Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent among the studied patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis was found to be less common in Oman compared to other diabetes centers in the Middle East.
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