Increasing trend in the sole crops commercialization has questioned the sustainability of the traditional gum Arabic agroforestry (Bush-fallow) system in western Sudan. This shift in the farming system from a traditional sustainable system to more commercialized one has resulted in a drastic decline in soil fertility, decreased crop productivity and low gum Arabic production. Therefore, identification of alternative options and incentives are required to ameliorate the negative environmental effects of increasing commercialization trends. This paper takes this issue and empirically investigating the factors influencing the decision to adopt agroforestry using a binary probit model. The results show that farmers with less commercialization, access to credit, less fragmented land, more education, high gum Arabic gate price, located away from the markets, and with more years of experience in farming are more likely to practice the traditional gum Arabic agroforestry system. In contrast, the allocation of more working days for commercial sole crops production, more fragmented land, and higher commercialization index reduces the probability of gum Arabic agroforestry adoption. In conclusion, this dichotomy between sole crop commercialization and traditional gum agroforestry system may be solved through the encouragement of the adoption of the traditional intercropping system with gum tree (Acacia senegal). Production of gum tree (Acacia senegal) itself should be more commercialized and prioritized. Conservation programs should focus on more educated, experienced famers with less fragmentized land if the policy is to promote the sustainable farming system in the region to promote soil fertility and to improve the effect of sole crop commercialization on traditional gum Arabic agroforestry system.
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