Objectives: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a disorder affecting the structure and function of the motile cilia of the respiratory system. Transmission electron microscopy is one method that can be used to examine ciliary ultrastructure in airway biopsies. Although the role of ultrastructural findings in PCD has been described in the literature, this role has not been well-studied in the Middle East or, specifically, Oman. This study aimed to describe ultrastructural features in Omani patients with high suspicion of PCD. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 129 adequate airway biopsies obtained from Omani patients attending pulmonary clinics at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, from 2010 to 2020 who were suspected of having PCD. Results: Ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities in the current study population were outer dynein arm (ODA) associated with inner dynein arm (IDA) defects (8%), microtubular disorganisation associated with IDA defect (5%) and isolated ODA defect (2%). Most of the biopsies showed normal ultrastructure (82%). Conclusion: In Omani patients suspected to have PCD, normal ultrastructure was the most common feature.
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