Introduction: A review was conducted to examine the prevalence and risk factors of developing overweight and obesity in children residing in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Method: PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar databases using PRISMA guidelines were searched from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2017. The inclusion criteria were (a) studies written in English, (b) clinical trials that examined risk factors of childhood overweight or obesity, (c) studies involving children 5 to 10 years of age, and (d) studies conducted in GCC countries. Results: Three main types of childhood obesity risk factors were identified (individual, familial, and lifestyle behavioral factors). The dietary, physical activity, and screen time lifestyle behavior risk factor findings were inconclusive. Discussion: Childhood obesity is increasing in GCC countries. Lifestyle behavior risk factors are still unclear. Researchers need to use instruments that have been psychometric tested and culturally acceptable. A follow-up review should be conducted.
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