Leachate originating from municipal solid waste landfills poses a serious contamination threat to public health. The study performed a bio-physicochemical characterization of leachate from two landfills in Oman, i.e., Multaqa landfill leachate (MLL) and Barka landfill leachate (BLL) before and after rainfall. Samples were characterized for 92 parameters. Additionally, the leachate pollution index (LPI) was estimated to assess the expected contamination levels and potential environmental health risks. The study found a high value of the leachate parameters without any rainfall incidents. Pearson correlations (+ve) are seen at more than 90% in all cases, which is a strong association (r.0.75) for the measured parameters in both MLL and BLL. Rainfall significantly reduced the concentrations of organic contaminants and solids in leachate due to dilution. The study revealed about 18%–29% and 14%–28% reductions in the LPI sub-index for organic and inorganic contaminants, respectively, after rainfall. The overall LPI values were higher compared with similar findings from the literature. Such deviations could be attributed to the unsegregated nature of solid waste, resulting in the formation of contaminants or from the disposal of a high volume of solid waste in a smaller area. Therefore, the study recommends efficient management strategies for landfills to reduce potential leachate groundwater contamination.
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