Background: Research during residency is associated with better clinical performance, improved critical thinking, and increased interest in an academic career. Objective: We examined the rate, characteristics, and factors associated with research publications by residents in Oman Medical Specialty Board (OMSB) programs. Methods: We included residents enrolled in 18 OMSB residency programs between 2011 and 2016. Resident characteristics were obtained from the OMSB Training Affairs Department. In April 2018, MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched independently by 2 authors for resident publications in peer-reviewed journals using standardized criteria. Results: Over the study period, 552 residents trained in OMSB programs; 64% (351 of 552) were female, and the mean age at matriculation was 29.4 ± 2.2 years. Most residents (71%, 393 of 552) were in the early stages of specialty training (R ≤ 3) and 49% (268 of 552) completed a designated research block as part of their training. Between 2011 and 2016, 43 residents published 42 research articles (range, 1-5 resident authors per article), for an overall publication rate of 8%. Residents were the first authors in 20 (48%) publications. Male residents (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07; P = .025, 95% CI 1.1-3.91) and residents who completed a research block (OR = 2.57; P = .017, 95% CI 1.19-5.57) were significantly more likely to publish. Conclusions: Research training during residency can result in tangible research output. Future studies should explore barriers to publication for resident research and identify interventions to promote formal scholarly activity during residency.
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