Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific parental risk factors that may contribute to the development of ADHD in children. Methods: The study was conducted in Oman among fourth-grade students (aged nine to 10 years). A standardized Arabic version of the National Initiative for Children’s Health Quality Vanderbilt Assessment Scale (Teachers questionnaire) was used to determine the presence of ADHD. Parental factors such as socioeconomic status, education, and occupation were documented. Results: The prevalence rate of ADHD was 8.8%. Poor maternal education status, low familial socioeconomic status, and paternal occupation were significantly associated with an increased risk of ADHD. Conclusions: This was the first study that examined familial and parental characteristics of children with ADHD as potential risk factors for the condition. Such psychosocial factors could be employed to further the development of more proficient preventative measures and remedial services.
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