Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) refers to the condition of neurocognitive decline following surgery in a cognitive and sensory manner. There are several risk factors, which may be life-threatening for this condition. Neuropsychological assessment of this condition is very im-portant. In the present review, we discuss the association of apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) and few miRNAs with POCD, and highlight the clinical importance for prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of POCD. Microarray is a genome analysis that can be used to determine DNA abnormalities. This current technique is rapid, efficient and high-throughout. Microarray techniques are widely used to di-agnose diseases, particularly in genetic disorder, chromosomal abnormalities, mutations, infectious diseases and disease-relevant biomarkers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that are widely found distributed in eukaryotes. Few miRNAs influence the nervous system development, and nerve damage repair. Microarray approach can be utilized to understand the miRNAs involved and their pathways in POCD development, unleashing their potential to be considered as a diagnostic marker for POCD. This paper summarizes and identifies the studies that use microarray based approaches for POCD analysis. Since the application of microarray in POCD is expanding, there is a need to review the current knowledge of this approach.
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