Energy losses in a typical distribution system can be in a range of 6 to 10%, and it depends on the system characteristics, installed equipment, and operating strategies of the distribution network. Losses reduction during peak periods needs special attention since the losses in the system and the cost of the losses are the highest during this peak. Distribution System Owner (DSO) always strives to reduce power losses in the distribution network that eventually leads to energy saving and cost reduction. This paper presents the model of a selected 33 kV, 11 kV and LV network of a representative primary substation, which is a part of the Muscat Electricity Distribution Company (MEDC) network. In order to quantify the losses in various components, the numerical simulation is carried out using the ETAP software package. The technical losses, power factors, and voltage profiles are quantified and analyzed. This paper also investigates on the optimal conductor and cable selection for 11kV lines, capitalization values for transformer losses to alleviate system losses and hence the system operational cost. The method of determining optimal conductor and cable size for an 11kV distribution network is presented, where the cost of losses for various conductors with their extra construction or material cost are compared. It also presents the detailed model of calculating capitalization values for distribution transformer losses and sample calculation of the capitalization values. Utilizing these capitalization values, the transformer buyer can calculate the total life cycle cost of the distribution transformers and select the most economical one.
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