The kidneys control homeostasis by regulating plasma volume and hormone secretion and acid-base balance. These are delicate organs and, sometimes are weakened due to many kidney diseases and use of some toxins and excess drugs. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important cause of renal failure. The serum creatinine and blood urea are classical kidney biomarkers. New kidney acute injury biomarkers i.e. acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers are early indicators of kidney diseases, which may be used to save the lives of the patients. Therefore, analysis of AKI is essential and urgent issue in urology. The analysis of AKI biomarkers is reviewed. The article describes the-state-of-the art of the analyses of AKI biomarkers in urine, blood and breath samples. The attempts are made to discuss the sample handlings and analyses techniques. The analyses techniques discussed are chromatography, ELISA, NMR, nano technology and others. Some recent patents (2014-2015) have also been reviewed. Most of the patents available used immune assays detections of AKI biomarkers; except few where chromatography was used. Besides, the efforts have also been made to discuss correlation among AKIs biomarkers, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Additionally, the current and future developments are also highlighted in AKI biomarkers analyses.
|الصفحات (من إلى)||81-92|
|دورية||Recent Patents on Biomarkers|
|حالة النشر||Published - أغسطس 1 2015|
ASJC Scopus subject areas