Temperament Styles of Children from Egypt and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Examination

Carmelo M. Callueng, Mahmoud Emam*, Thomas Oakland

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 15 in Egypt (N = 800) and the United States (U.S., N = 800) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: extroversion–introversion, practical–imaginative, thinking–feeling, and organized–flexible using the Student Styles Questionnaire (SSQ). Egyptian children generally prefer extroverted over introverted, practical over imaginative, and organized over flexible styles. Their general preference for feeling over thinking styles is gender related; although both males and females generally prefer feeling styles, males are less likely than females to prefer this style. Age differences are found on extroverted–introverted and practical–imaginative styles. Cross-national differences are found on four temperament styles. In contrast to children in the U.S., children in Egypt are more likely to prefer extroverted, practical, feeling, and organized styles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)581-585
Number of pages5
JournalCommunity Mental Health Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2020


  • Cross-national differences
  • Egyptian children
  • Temperament styles
  • U.S. children

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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