Susceptibility to impact damage of apples inside ventilated corrugated paperboard packages: Effects of package design

Tobi Fadiji, Corne Coetzee, Pankaj Pathare, Umezuruike Linus Opara*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


The incidence of fruit postharvest losses and waste due to mechanical damage during handling is a major problem in the fresh produce industry. Ventilated corrugated paperboard (VCP) packages used extensively in the fruit industry are designed to minimize handling damage and to facilitate airflow around the produce to maintain the cold chain. During handling and transportation, both the package and contents experience a range of force loading conditions, including impact, compression and vibration which may result in bruise damage. The objectives of this study were to investigate the impact bruise damage susceptibility of apples packed inside two ventilated carton designs (one with fruit on tray layers and the other with fruit in retail polyethylene plastic bags). The spatial variation of bruise damage inside the packages and the incidence of physical damage of the packages were also investigated. Results showed that both the incidence and susceptibility to bruise damage of the apples were affected by package design and drop heights; with more than 50% higher incidence and 66% higher bruise susceptibility occurring on fruit packed in the bulk package design than on those packed in the layered package design. Irrespective of package design, both bruising incidence and susceptibility were highest at the bottom of the package, which increased significantly by about 50% when the package drop height increased from 30. cm to 50. cm.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-296
Number of pages11
JournalPostharvest Biology and Technology
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2016


  • Accelerometer
  • Apples
  • Bruise susceptibility
  • Impact damage
  • Ventilated packaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Horticulture


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