Rice production systems and grain quality

Noreen Zahra, Muhammad Bilal Hafeez, Ahmad Nawaz, Muhammad Farooq*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Rice is one of the leading cereal crops feeding millions across the globe. Various factors including stand establishment methods (direct seeding, transplanting), water management (continuous flooding, intermittent flooding (alternate wetting and drying), aerobic culture), plant population, soil type and its management, weed-crop competition duration and weed management, fertilizer type- dose- and application timing affect the quality of rice. Although direct seeded aerobic rice production systems are eco-friendly, nonetheless poor grain quality in terms of amylose/amylopectin contents, mineral nutrients, amino acids, grain protein, chalkiness percentage, viscosity, rice recovery percentage, grain weight, and milling quality has been reported widely in these systems which need substantial improvement. Soil and fertilizer management with conjugative use of organic and inorganic fertilizers (macro-and micro), planting at the optimum time with optimum seed rate, and integrated weed management. There is also a need to develop rice varieties that are well-suited to direct seeded aerobic rice production systems. This review discusses the factors affecting the grain quality in different rice production systems and suggests strategies for improving rice grain quality with a focus on direct seeded aerobic rice system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103463
JournalJournal of Cereal Science
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2022


  • Alternate wetting and drying
  • Continuously flooded rice
  • Direct seeded rice
  • Rice production system
  • Rice quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Biochemistry


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