Psychometric assessment and cross-cultural adaptation of the GRIT-S scale among Omani and American universities’ students

Amal Alhadabi*, Said Aldhafri, Hussain Alkharusi, Ibrahim Al-Harthy, Hafidha AlBarashdi, Marwa Alrajhi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The current study aimed to adopt and assess the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of Grit-S among Omani and American students (N = 487) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The scale’s construct validity was estimated by investigating its associations with achievement goal orientations (AGOs). EFA results suggested that a two-factor solution (i.e., perseverance of effort [G_PE] and consistency of interest [G_CI]) was the best factorial structure, explaining 47.74% and 51.02% of the variance in the Omani and American samples, respectively. The factors had good reliability coefficients in the two samples. Related to the intercultural differences, G_PE explained more variance among Omanis (31.02%) relative to American sample, whereas G_CI explained a larger proportion of variance among Americans (36.86%) compared with Omani sample. The first level of measurement invariance, configural invariance, was not supported, necessitating the investigation of the other levels of measurement invariance using a new sample. Grit correlated positively with mastery and performance-approach goals (r = .29 and .12, respectively) and negatively with avoidance goals (r = -.25), supporting the scale’s construct validity. These findings showed that Grit-S scale can be used as valid and reliable assessment tool to assess student interest and perseverance in the academic context in Arabic/Omani and American cultures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1175-1191
Number of pages17
JournalEuropean Journal of Educational Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Achievement goal orientations
  • Cross-cultural study
  • Grit
  • Psychometric properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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