Preliminary hazard assessment of air pollution levels in Nizwa, Rusayl and sur in Oman

Patrick Amoatey, Hamid Omidvarborna, Mahad Said Baawain*, Issa Al-Harthy, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Khalifa Al-Jabri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The World Health Organization WHO recognises air pollution as a serious public health concern in many developing countries due to the influx of energy-intensive industries with limited planning and exposure mitigation strategies. Due to industrial expansion and release of associated air pollutants in Oman, the US Environmental Protection Agency human health risk assessment HHRA model was used to determine the non-carcinogenic hazard associated with exposure to industrial emissions. Across the three industrial cities Nizwa, Sur and Rusayl, the study found ambient average concentrations μg/m3 of 1 h carbon monoxide CO 606-1974, nitrogen dioxide NO2 7.7-43.9 and sulfur dioxide SO2 4.8-9.0 and 24 h PM2.5 7.3-7.8 and PM10 38.7-51.5 to be significantly lower than both the Ministry of Environment and Climatic Affairs MECA and WHO limits. The HHRA analysis showed that exposure to the air pollutants produced low non-carcinogenic adverse health effects, as the hazard quotient HQ was found to be <1 among the population. However, there was an increase in HQ for WHO reference exposure level REL values compared with that of MECA; this is due to the relaxed/high REL limits of the latter. Future epidemiological studies involving long-term air pollution exposure assessment and health data may improve the reliability of the current HHRA estimates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-29
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Environmental Engineering and Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 11 2021


  • environment
  • pollution
  • public health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)


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