Novel Therapeutical Approaches to Managing Atherosclerotic Risk

Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Anca Pantea Stoian, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Maciej Banach, Angelo Maria Patti, Marcello Ciaccio, Ali A Rizvi, Manfredi Rizzo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial vascular disease that leads to inflammation and stiffening of the arteries and decreases their elasticity due to the accumulation of calcium, small dense Low Density Lipoproteins (sdLDL), inflammatory cells, and fibrotic material. A review of studies pertaining to cardiometabolic risk factors, lipids alterations, hypolipidemic agents, nutraceuticals, hypoglycaemic drugs, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation was performed. There are several therapeutic strategies including Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, inclisiran, bempedoic acid, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and nutraceuticals that promise improvement in the atheromatous plaque from a molecular point of view, because have actions on the exposure of the LDL-Receptor (LDL-R), on endothelial dysfunction, activation of macrophages, on lipid oxidation, formations on foam cells, and deposition extracellular lipids. Atheroma plaque reduction both as a result of LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C) intensive lowering and reducing inflammation and other residual risk factors is an integral part of the management of atherosclerotic disease, and the use of valid therapeutic alternatives appear to be appealing avenues to solving the problem.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4633
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Apr 28 2021


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Inflammations
  • Innovative therapies
  • Management
  • Molecular signaling
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Catalysis
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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