This study, conducted at Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, explored foundation program students’ transitional challenges related to their academic development and adjustment with a focus on computer self-efficacy and English proficiency. The study was designed within the framework of mixed methods research. The data were obtained through 10 semi-structured interviews with the coordination team of the English foundation program science course at the research site, focus group discussions with 21 student participants, and an online questionnaire administered to 143 students. Frequency analysis was used for quantitative data analysis, while data triangulation with the open-ended question responses and focus group discussions with students was used for the validation of findings. The results reveal that multiple social, emotional, and academic transitional challenges faced by students are partially rooted in their relatively low mastery levels in language skills and their comparatively low computer competence, both of which hinder their progress in writing and study skills course work. As a result, it is recommended that these issues are addressed when considering remedial work and the further development of general foundation programs in Oman. As an outcome of this study, general foundation program providers and educators in Oman and other educational contexts will have a better understanding of students’ transitional challenges and be able to offer their students the tools and strategies for effective learning and thriving through their foundation studies.