Evaluation of controlled low strength materials containing industrial by-products

R. A. Taha, A. S. Alnuaimi, K. S. Al-Jabri*, A. S. Al-Harthy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


A controlled low strength material (CLSM) is a self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill. It is also known as a flowable fill which is usually a mixture of fine aggregates, small amount of cement, fly ash, and water. To be classified as a CLSM, the mixture must have a compressive strength between 345 and 8400 kPa. This paper evaluates the potential use of cement by-pass dust, incinerator ash and copper slag as a CLSM. Mixtures were designed to produce a CLSM, with a low compressive strength (less than 1034 kPa), that can be excavated without using any mechanical equipment. Slump, unit weight and unconfined compressive strength tests were conducted on various mixtures. Cubical and cylindrical specimens were prepared and cured at room temperature and in sealed plastic bags. Results indicate that with a good mix design it is possible to produce a CLSM with good mechanical properties to meet design requirements. Mixing these materials with cement and sand produced better results than using them alone due to their low pozzolanic activity. Curing method and period can have considerable effects on the strength of a CLSM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3366-3372
Number of pages7
JournalBuilding and Environment
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2007


  • Backfill
  • Cement by-pass dust
  • Controlled low strength material
  • Copper slag
  • Flowable fill
  • Incinerator ash
  • Slump
  • Strength

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction


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