Emissions and exposure assessments of SOX, NOX, PM10/2.5 and trace metals from oil industries: A review study (2000–2018)

Patrick Amoatey, Hamid Omidvarborna, Mahad Said Baawain*, Abdullah Al-Mamun

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

91 Citations (Scopus)


Rapid urbanization and industrial growth have caused massive increase in the number and the production capacities of oil industries. Such industries release a wide-range of ambient acidic gases, particulate matters (PMs) and trace metals into the environment. They can also undergo chemical transformation and nucleation to form new chemical species and secondary aerosols. These pollutants are potentially carcinogenic and may cause cardiorespiratory, pulmonary mortalities and morbidities to the exposed population through inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Hence, the main objective of this review study was to identify various approaches used in monitoring, measurement, and control of ambient acidic gases, PMs and trace metals from oil industries. The review study revealed that PM10/2.5, SO2, NO2, and trace metals were the widely reported ambient air pollutants released from oil industries. Cancer and respiratory diseases were the major health effects associated with such emissions. Air quality monitoring stations, samplers and dispersion models were found as the main approaches used to determine the emissions. Moreover, recommendations on ultrafine particles, Nano-particle and long-range transportation exposure assessments of pollutants were explored. Apart from that, the fate of pollutants, properties, routes of exposure, human health risk assessments and new approaches of emerging control technologies (Fenton and Ultrasonic reactions mainly on SO2, NOx and Hg reductions) were systematically reviewed. Finally, additional research on exposure assessment of oil industry emissions by private companies and government agencies was discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-228
Number of pages14
JournalProcess Safety and Environmental Protection
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • Air quality measurements
  • Emission control technologies
  • Exposure assessment
  • Health effects
  • Oil industry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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