Circadian Disruption and Occupational Toxicants Exposure Affecting the Immunity of Shift Workers During SARS CoV-2 Pandemic

Siti Hanisah Mohd Fuad, Norsham Juliana*, Nor Amira Syahira Mohd Azmi, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi Teng, Sahar Azmani, Izuddin Fahmy Abu, Srijit Das

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


In several regions of the world, the recent Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak increased morbidity and mortality. The pandemic situation disrupted many workers' previously established lifestyles. The main aim of the present review was to describe the circadian disruption and occupational toxicant exposure affecting the immunity of shift workers during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic. We retrieved pertinent published literature from the Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus databases. In the present review, we discuss the circadian rhythm involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the molecular level, its disruption, occupational toxicant exposure causing immunomodulatory effects, and the role of immunity during the SARS CoV-2 pandemic. The severity of the progression of the viral infection depends on multiple factors affecting immunity. Hence, shift workers may need to be aware of those factors such as circadian rhythm disruption as well as occupational toxicant exposure. The timing of shift workers' energy intake is also important concerning the shift of the workers. The information in the present review may be important for all workers who are at risk during the pandemic. In the absence of any published literature related to association of circadian rhythm disruption with occupational toxicant exposure, the present review may have greater importance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number829013
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - Mar 22 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • COVID-19
  • circadian rhythm
  • immunity
  • occupational toxicants
  • shift workers
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19/epidemiology
  • Pandemics
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Humans
  • Occupational Exposure/adverse effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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