Antioxidant and antipathogenic activities of citrus peel oils

Muhammad Mumtaz Khan, Mueen Iqbal, Muhammad Asif Hanif, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood, Summar Abbas Naqvi, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


The present study was focused on unexplored Pakistani citrus species viz. sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis Vars. Jaffa, Blood Red and Mosambi), Mandarins (Citrus reticulata Var. kinnow) and grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Var. Shamber) for peel oil yield, chemical composition and antipathogen activities. The chemical composition of citrus peel oil was analyzed through gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric analysis. Six compounds viz. D-limonene, d-carvone, Z-5-nonadecane, thujol, trans-P-mentha-2,8-dienol and heneicosane were commonly present in all cultivars. However, D-limonene (40.9-76%) was a major compound in all citrus peel oils. The high amounts of phenolic compounds were recorded in the peel oil with a maximum amount in grapefruit (8.58 mg/g) and minimum in Kinnow mandarin (5.20 mg/g). Jaffa orange cultivar showed a highest radical scavenging activity (70.14%). Furthermore, peel oils were tested for their antimicrobial activities against five pathogenic bacterial strains viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Eschrichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus epidermidis and two pathogenic fungal strains viz. Aspergillus flavus and Trichophyton alba. Citrus peel was found effective against all tested micro-organisms and in particular Jaffa orange essential oil was highly effective against all microbial strains growth and Salmonella typhi was the most inhibited strains among all.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)972-979
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • Antimicrobial
  • Citrus
  • Composition
  • Jaffa
  • Peel oil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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