A review of smart sensors coupled with Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence approach for heart failure monitoring

Muni Raj Maurya, Najam U S Sahar Riyaz, M Sai Bhargava Reddy, Huseyin Cagatay Yalcin, Hassen M Ouakad, Issam Bahadur, Somaya Al-Maadeed, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Over the last decade, there has been a huge demand for health care technologies such as sensors-based prediction using digital health. With the continuous rise in the human population, these technologies showed to be potentially effective solutions to life-threatening diseases such as heart failure (HF). Besides being a potential for early death, HF has a significantly reduced quality of life (QoL). Heart failure has no cure. However, treatment can help you live a longer and more active life with fewer symptoms. Thus, it is essential to develop technological aid solutions allowing early diagnosis and consequently, effective treatment with possibly delayed mortality. Commonly, forecasts of HF are based on the generation of vast volumes of data usually collected from an individual patient by different components of the family history, physical examination, basic laboratory results, and other medical records. Though, these data are not effectively useful for predicting this failure, nevertheless, with the aid of advanced medical technology such as interconnected multi-sensory-based devices, and based on several medical history characteristics, the broad data provided machine learning algorithms to predict risk factors for heart disease of an individual is beneficial. There will be many challenges for the next decade of advancements in HF care: exploiting an increasingly growing repertoire of interconnected internal and external sensors for the benefit of patients and processing large, multimodal datasets with new Artificial Intelligence (AI) software. Various methods for predicting heart failure and, primarily the significance of invasive and non-invasive sensors along with different strategies for machine learning to predict heart failure are presented and summarized in the present study. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Article number11
Pages (from-to)2185-2203
Number of pages19
JournalMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing
Issue number11-12
Early online dateOct 5 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Heart failure
  • Machine learning
  • Smart sensors
  • Software algorithms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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