A review of geothermal energy status and potentials in Middle-East countries

Patrick Amoatey, Mingjie Chen*, Ali Al Maktoumi, Azizallah Izady, Mahad Baawain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Geothermal energy production and consumption is one of the world’s top priorities as it ensures sustainable developments via steady yield of renewable energy and helps to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions and air pollution levels. The objective of this study is to critically assess geothermal energy prospects in terms of number of proven geothermal reservoirs, thermal energy capacities, and potential areas of utilization across thirteen Middle East countries (MECs). The findings from this study show that most oil-rich MECs have not adequately explored/exploited their geothermal resources as evidenced by lack of research and exploration activities. It was found that the current geothermal reservoirs/resources across all the MECs are mostly medium (100–150 °C) and low (< 100 °C) enthalpy reservoirs, except Turkey, Iran, and Yemen which have exhibited some high (>150 °C) enthalpy geothermal fields. For low/depleted oil and gas reserves countries, full exploitation of geothermal energy is deemed as one of the options to meet their energy demands. In order to fully optimize the geothermal energy productions, it is imperative for these countries to employ advanced geothermal energy production technologies (GEPTs). MECs could learn the experiences of Europe and US to develop their own GEPTs including national and regional strategies and policy frameworks to help fully harness these valuable geothermal resources. These targets are possible through research, trainings, and international collaborations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number245
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalArabian Journal of Geosciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2021


  • Geothermal energy
  • Middle-East countries
  • Renewable energy
  • Sustainable development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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