A Global MPPT Based on Bald Eagle Search Technique for PV System Operating under Partial Shading Conditions

Waleed Al Abri, Rashid Al Abri, Hassan Yousef, Amer Al-Hinai

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

5 Citations (Scopus)


One of the most prevalent difficulties in PV systems is partial shading condition (PSC), which results in considerable de-creases in energy production. Even so, this can create multiple lo-cal maximum power points (MPP) (in the PV curve) and can cause conventional and advanced Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controllers to operate the PV system at a low peak value. Consequently, the PV system's power output is reduced further. By incorporating a global MPP searching method in the MPPT controller, the PV system can operate at its greatest efficiency under PSC. This paper proposes a global MPP (GMPP) method based on Bald Eagle Searching (BES), which finds the maximum value in three stages (selecting space, searching in space, and swooping). This study uses the first stage of the BES method to design the proposed GMPP searching method. The BES method demonstrates better performance than Cuckoo Search (CS) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Compared with the PSO and CS methods, the proposed method reduces search time (average of all PSC cases) by 36.17% and 40.76%, respectively. Further-more, it finds the GMPP in all simulated PSC cases without fail. In addition to its excellent performance, the proposed method is simple and easy to implement due to its single tuning parameter, unlike PSO and CS.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication10th International Conference on Smart Grid, icSmartGrid 2022
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781665486040
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event10th International Conference on Smart Grid, icSmartGrid 2022 - Istanbul, Turkey
Duration: Jun 27 2022Jun 29 2022

Publication series

Name10th International Conference on Smart Grid, icSmartGrid 2022


Conference10th International Conference on Smart Grid, icSmartGrid 2022


  • Bald Eagle search technique
  • I-V curve tracing
  • Meta-heuristic methods
  • global MPPT
  • partial shading

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Control and Optimization

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