A Comprehensive Review on a Virtual-Synchronous Generator: Topologies, Control Orders and Techniques, Energy Storages, and Applications

Myada Shadoul, Razzaqul Ahshan*, Rashid S. AlAbri, Abdullah Al-Badi, Mohammed Albadi, Mohsin Jamil

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, the penetration of renewable power generations into the electrical grid has substantially increased. Continuous deployment of power electronic-based distributed generations and the reduction of traditional synchronous machines with their essential dynamics in modern power networks are very critical in this change. The use of power electronic inverters leads to the dissociation of sources and loads and lowering the power system inertia. Under power imbalance, this drop causes an elevated rate of change in frequency and frequency divergences, which has a notable impact on the system’s frequency stability. As a result, enhanced control techniques for grid-tied electronic converters are required to secure the power system’s stability and support. The virtual-synchronous generator (VSG) control is used to mimic the dynamics of a rotating synchronous generator and improve the power system’s stability. In this article, the problems of such low-inertia power systems, as well as the VSG technologies, are explored. This research also looks at different control orders and strategies for virtual-synchronous generators (VSG). In addition, the utilization of energy storage and critical matters in VSG and further research recommendations are explained.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8406
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - Nov 10 2022


  • power electronic coveters
  • renewable energy sources
  • virtual inertia
  • virtual-synchronous machine
  • VSM control
  • VSM topologies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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