Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) canonical function is to conjugate specific amino acids to cognate tRNA that are required for the first step of protein synthesis. Genetic mutations that cause dysfunction or absence of ARSs result in various neurodevelopmental disorders. The human phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) is a tetrameric protein made of two subunits coded by FARSA gene and two subunits coded by FARSB gene. We describe eight affected individuals from an extended family with a multisystemic recessive disease manifest as a significant growth restriction, brain calcifications, and interstitial lung disease. Genome-wide linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing identified homozygosity for a FARSB mutation (NM_005687.4:c.853G > A:p.Glu285Lys) that co-segregate with the disease and likely cause loss-of-function. This study further implicates FARSB mutations in a multisystem, recessive, neurodevelopmental phenotype that share clinical features with the previously known aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-related diseases.
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