Background: Clinical trials used Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formula to calculate the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in order to dose rivaroxaban for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate rivaroxaban dosing appropriateness in patients with AF with or without renal impairment based on the CG formula and other formulae, including Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) traceable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation and the associated clinical outcomes. Methodology: A retrospective cohort study conducted at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) from 1st January 2016 to 31st December 2020, included all adult patients (≥ 18 years) treated with rivaroxaban for AF and followed up for one year after starting the treatment. Results: Based on the CG formula, the rivaroxaban dose was inappropriately prescribed in 27% of the patients (21% overdosed and 6% underdosed). Higher baseline creatinine (P=0.0014) and concurrent use of antiplatelet therapy (P<0.001) were associated with the tendency to rivaroxaban overdosing. Higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (P=0.002), female sex (P=0.032), and CKD (P=0.003) were associated with rivaroxaban underdosing. The degree of agreement between the renal function tests when comparing MDRD vs CG and CKD-EPI vs CG in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate/creatine clearance (eGFR/CrCl) calculation was moderate (κ=0.46) and poor (κ=0.00), respectively, while, in terms of rivaroxaban dose appropriateness was almost perfect (κ=0.82) and substantial (κ=0.77). Clinical outcomes measured by stroke and bleeding events were not significantly different according to the appropriateness of the rivaroxaban dose. Conclusion: This study has shown a relatively high consistency with the gold standard in dosing rivaroxaban in AF patients using CG formula. Treatment efficiency and safety were not affected by the proportion of dose inappropriateness found in this cohort.
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